The Theory and Application of Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B

By Richard Vallance Janke, H.B.A., M.L.S.


The presentation was delivered by Richard Vallance Janke at the 3rd Interdisciplinary Conference, Poland, July 1st 2015.



To download this paper in .pdf format, please click here: Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B







Alan Touring (1923 – 1954). Image may be copyrighted.

Alan Turing (1912-1954), the world-famous mathematical genius and cryptologist, was head of the brilliant team at Bletchley Park in England, which was to decipher what was considered at the time to be the unbreakable Enigma Code the German Navy used in World War II. The purpose of my presentation is to illustrate how, in today’s hectic world, universal symbols on physical signs, otherwise known as signage, reflect the uncannily similar rôle Linear B played in the ancient world.

So let’s get straight to the point, and take a look at Slide A. The international standard signage symbols we all my must rely on every day of our lives are of two kinds, nominal (N), for symbols which replace the names of places, otherwise known as toponyms,  which convey static information, and verbal or kinetic (V), which replace actions we must take if we are to avoid unpleasant or disastrous consequences. These pictorial symbols are referred to as ideograms. Moving on to to Slide B, we find IATA’s international aviation city codes, which consist of two letters only, followed by their three-letter airport and baggage-handling codes.

Slide A.Image may be copyrighted.

Slide A. Image may be copyrighted. 


Slide B. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide B. Image may be copyrighted.

Keeping the aforementioned codes in mind, before we can interpret the Mycenaean city and settlement codes, I need to define in broad terms what a syllabary is.  A syllabary is a script based on syllabograms, each of which consists of a single consonant + a single vowel up to a maximum of 5 vowels in a discrete series. For instance, Linear B has a D series, da, de, di, do & du, an N series, na, ne, ni, no & nu, an R series, ra, re, ri, ro & ru, W series, wa, we, wi & wo, and so on.  Linear B also has the five vowels.

We are actually interested in the city codes because, moving on to Slide C, we see the exact same coding system for cities and settlements in Mycenaean Linear B.

Slide C. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide C. Image may be copyrighted.

Although I had already translated scores of Linear B tablets by the winter of 2014, when I came across Prof. Thomas G. Palaima’ s excellent translation of Linear B Tablet Heidelburg HE Fl 1994 2, I hit upon something truly remarkable I had never before noticed. Palaima, realizing that each syllabogram for city or settlement names was immediately followed by a number, concluded that each one was the first syllabogram, i.e. the first syllable only of their names, Konoso in Linear B or Knossos, Zakoro or Zakros, Paraikasatoro or Palaikastro (or possibly, Paito, Phaistos), Puro or Pylos and Mukene or Mycenae. These abbreviated codes for Minoan and Mycenaean cities and settlements uncannily mirror the two-character modern city codes symbolizing their international airports. This reveals something of the symbolic sophistication of the proto-historic syllabary, Mycenaean Linear B, taken to its limits.  In passing, it is worthwhile noting that the Minoan-Mycenaean society cannot have been prehistoric, since its scribes were at the very least minimally literate.

On the distinct hunch that I was onto something, I decided to thoroughly scan the Knossos Linear B trove. Out of 4,500 Linear B writings, give or take, Sir Arthur Evans unearthed at Knossos, some 1,500 were mere fragments, leaving about 3,000 largely intact tablets worthwhile investigating. In the course of a year and a half (2014-2015), I was to learn that  some 700 or 23.3 % of the 3,000 tablets I examined all had at least one single syllabogram on them, and some as many as five! This subset of 700 tablets out of 3,000 which contain single syllabograms alone or in a series in conjunction with ideograms alone is far too statistically significant to be safely ignored.

Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B:

Now to the question of supersyllabograms. What are they, and what rôle do they play in Mycenaean Linear B?  Some of the tablets I examined had single syllabograms only on them, and no text whatsoever.  I had to wonder why on earth there was no text and what did all these single syllabograms mean? The answer was not long in coming. Looking at Slide D, we see that the first two new codes (ze & mo), are once again identical to our modern IATA city codes and the ancient city and settlement codes in Linear B, with the significant difference from those for Minoan/Mycenaean city and settlement names that they either immediately precede or follow an ideogram, surcharged on it. The next 20 tablets in a row revealed that these single syllabograms adjacent to an ideogram repeated themselves over and over, like clockwork. This raises another  vexatious question. Why had the scribes so consistently resorted to writing only one syllabogram, with no text? No-one deliberately resorts to any linguistic device when writing in any language, unless it serves a useful purpose beneficial to more effective communication, contextual or otherwise.

Slide D. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide D. Image may be copyrighted.

On Knossos tablet KN SO 4439 3, we see the syllabogram ze surcharged onto the ideogram for “wheel”. Checking it against the Mycenaean Linear B – English Glossary and Chris Tselentis’ Linear B Lexicon, under the syllabogram ze, I found only one entry which fits the bill, the word zeukesi, the attested dative/instrumental plural for the derivative zeukos  (D = derived or unattested nominative singular), meaning “a pair of ” or “a team of ”. This was almost too good to be true. I had found the exact word to suit the context, because this syllabogram, which is the first syllable of the word zeukos in both dictionaries, is paired with the ideogram for a chariot wheel! So the syllabogram ze is the first syllable of the Mycenaean Linear B word or phrase it symbolizes. That is exactly what a supersyllabogram is, a syllabogram symbolizing a Mycenaean Linear B word or entire phrase.

The next supersyllabogram, mo is the first syllable of monos, meaning “a single” or “one only” or even “a spare”.  The translation, “a pair of chariot wheels & a spare one, made from a willow tree” leaps to the fore.  Still, since I had no collaborative empirical evidence that the translation was correct, even though it made perfect sense. I could only surmise that this was a standard scribal practice. Was there any real proof  that there was any substance to the use of supersyllabograms, or even better, that scribal use of them was persistent?

Slide E1. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide E1. Image may be copyrighted.

I was about to be richly rewarded.  As illustrated by Slide E1, I came upon that rarity of rarities, the “magic bullet” on Knossos tablet KN 1232 Ed 462, which spells out the word periqoro 4, meaning “an enclosure”, in other words “a sheep pen” immediately adjacent to the ideogram for “ram”.  The very next tablet, KN 1233 En 224 replaces the word periqoro with the syllabogram pe, the first syllable of the very same word, again immediately adjacent to ideogram for “ram”. Thanks to an obliging ancient scribe, I had adventitiously broken the code. This burst the doors wide open. The time had finally come for me to able to identify, define and isolate once and for all the phenomenon of the supersyllabogram. If only the scribes resorted to this practice not on just a few scattered tablets, but on hundreds of them, I would have proof positive.

As it turns out, in a syllabary of 61 syllabograms, 34 or 55.7 % are supersyllabograms. That is a staggering return for the scribes’ deliberate and eminently practical investment in what is a remarkably clever stock technique to shortcut lengthy text, which would have otherwise simply cluttered up the very small Linear B tablets they routinely worked with (rarely more than 15 cm. wide).

Slide E2. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide E2. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide E2 illustrates just how far the Linear B scribes were willing to go in swapping in supersyllabograms for text deliberately swapped out. In the sheep husbandry sector alone in the field of agriculture, we find hundreds of supersyllabograms ranging in meaning from the vowel o for onato = “lease field” to ki for kitimena =  “plot of land” to pe for periqoro = “sheep pen” to za for zaweto = “this year”. Astonishingly, all 4 of these supersyllabograms appear with no text whatsoever on Knossos tablet KN 927 F s 01. The very first time I read it, I was able to rattle off the textual meanings of these 4 supersyllabograms in their specific context, replacing what would otherwise been a sentence of 23 words (4 times as long)!  As a highly centralized team, these scribes were clever if not downright brilliant.

Passing over the textiles sector, with its 13 supersyllabograms, Slide F reveals that the vessels sector of the Minoan economy at Knossos yields 10 more previously unidentified SSYLS, for a total of 23 in these two sectors alone, with all sectors topping off at 34 all told, as illustrated by Slide I below.

There is just one more critical point to clear up, the distinction between associative (as) and attributive (at) supersyllabograms. Slide G neatly summarizes the marked difference between associative syllabograms, which account for the greatest number of SSYLS in the agricultural and military sectors, and attributive supersyllabograms, which appear primarily in the textiles and vessels (pottery, amphorae, cups etc.) sectors of the Late Minoan III & Mycenaean economies.

Associative supersyllabograms inform of us of some physical real-world element, usually in the agricultural sector, often a land tenure factor, which relates to the ideogram itself, or which circumscribes its environment, especially in the livestock raising sub-sector, but which does not define the ideogram itself  in any way. The ideogram for “ram” paired with the number of rams accounted for in this inventory + the supersyllabogram ki informs us that these rams are being raised on a kitimena or a “plot of land”, while the supersyllabogram o with the ideogram for “sheep” informs us that the sheep are being raised on an onato = “a lease(d) field”,  actually “a usufruct field leased by an overseer to a tenant”. That is a great deal of text to cram into one syllabogram and one vowel. The scribe could have simply stated that x no. of sheep were being raised, and left it at that, without recourse to supersyllabograms. But he did not. By adding just one syllabogram, this scribe has effectively replaced what would otherwise have been discursive descriptive text. In other words, the syllabograms in and of themselves are very precise, information-rich symbols of the descriptive text they so neatly replace.

Slide F. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide F. Image may be copyrighted.

The relationship between an associative supersyllabogram, the dependent variable, and the ideogram, the independent variable, is intrinsically symbiotic. On the other hand, the independent ideogram does not stand in symbiotic relationship with its dependent supersyllabogram. The associative supersyllabogram sets the ideogram, which all alone would simply mean “sheep”, “rams” or “ewes” in a specific context. But, since they are utterly meaningless unless immediately adjacent to the ideogram they qualify, single syllabograms are almost never used unless paired with an ideogram. While the syllabogram ki must mean “a plot of land” when associated with any of the three ideograms for sheep, strip away that ideogram, and ki all by itself could be the first syllable of any one of no fewer than 175 entries under ki in Chris Tselentis’ Linear B Lexicon. Meaningless without context.

Attributive dependent supersyllabograms always appear inside the ideogram which they qualify, never adjacent to it. They always describe an actual attribute of the ideogram. As illustrated by Slide G below, the syllabogram pu inside the ideogram pawea for “cloth” is the first syllabogram, i.e. the first syllable of the Mycenaean word pukatariya for “textiles”, the technical Mycenaean name for cloth. The syllabogram te inside the ideogram for “cloth” is the supersyllabogram for tetukuwoa, meaning “well prepared cloth” i.e. “cloth ready for distribution and sale on the open market”. Neither type of dependent supersyllabogram, associative or attributive, was ever systematically isolated and tabulated in Mycenaean Linear B until I took it upon myself to do so. To date, I have discovered, identified & classified well over a dozen attributive supersyllabograms alone (out of a total of 34).

Slide G. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide G. Image may be copyrighted.

This raises another question. Why did the entire collegiate of scribes so often resort to this strategy? Since it was critical for the scribes to consume as little space as possible on what are ostensibly extremely small tablets, the use of supersyllabograms as a substitute for wasteful text is illustrative of just how far the scribes were willing to go to save such invaluable space. They did not do this only occasionally. They did it a great deal of the time, and they always followed the exact same formula in so doing.

Slide H. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide H. Image may be copyrighted.

Slide H illustrates the radical difference between a Linear B tablet on which a supersyllabogram + an ideogram is used, and another on which the text is spelled out.

The comparison between this extant tablet from Knossos using only 3 supersyllabograms with three ideograms (top), and a conjectural one on which text is written out in full, meaning exactly the same thing, illustrates beyond a shadow of a doubt why Linear B scribes much preferred the former simple formulaic approach to the latter discursive and space wasting textual technique. There is no textual version, simply because the scribe who inscribed it knew that it was a complete waste of his time and of precious space on such a small tablet.

Even though no one has ever managed to decipher all of the dependent supersyllabograms until now, that cannot conceivably mean that the Linear B scribes did not know exactly what they were doing. Otherwise, why would they have used them so liberally in the first place? Employing SSYLS for no reason at all is tantamount to a reductio ad absurdum. To ram the point home, there are not just scores or hundreds but thousands of single or multiple supersyllabograms to be found on 700 tablets or 23.3 % of 3,000 from Knossos. They are there because the scribes, as a guild, all understood perfectly well that each and every supersyllabogram always meant one thing and one thing only to them in its proper context. The very notion of future interpretations of what was obvious to them as accountants would have never entered their minds. But we owe it to ourselves to decipher as many supersyllabograms as we can. Otherwise we learn nothing really new of value to the field of historical linguistics in Mycenaean Linear B.

Supersyllabograms, which are always standardized and always formulaic, are clearly the shorthand version of Linear B text,  and as such one of the most significant innovations in the ancient world. In retrospect, it appears that we should all now be extremely thankful that those clever scribes devised this masterful strategy for writing Linear B. Had we not recognized it for the technological feat it is, we would have never realized that their ultimate achievement was the invention of shorthand in around 1450 BCE, and not in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as we formerly assumed.

Michael Ventris (1922 - 1956). Image may be copyrighted.

Michael Ventris (1922 – 1956). Image may be copyrighted.

As Alan Turing said, “Sometimes it is the people no one can imagine anything of who do the things no one can imagine.”  We gaze back 3,300 years through the mist of history , and exclaim, “They were mere scribes.”  Mere scribes, but we must never lose sight of the fact that, as a corporate body, almost certainly the sole literates of the proto-historic Minoan/Mycenaean society and economic infrastructure, they were held in unparalleled esteem by their regal overlords, the King, Queen and Princes royal of Knossos and Mycenae.

I would be remiss where I not to acknowledge the impressive groundwork laid by several illustrious researchers in the field of Mycenaean Linear B.  The great pioneers were the genius Michael Ventris himself 5, his colleague, Prof. John Chadwick, who in 1959 6 correctly identified 15 supersyllabograms (a o u di ki ku pe pu qa qe ri se te ti & zo), though without deciphering most of them and without realizing what they constituted as a phenomenon. In 1964, Prof. John T. Killen, “in a brilliant piece of deduction” 7, deciphered the 4 supersyllabograms, ki, ne, pe & za, all in the field of sheep husbandry, again without realizing what they actually were. In 2014, Prof. José L. Melena identified and translated a significant number of supersyllabograms. These he has labeled as “adjuncts” 8,  arraying them hand in hand with ideograms in the same class by amalgamating them with the latter. In so doing, he has effectively downplayed the critical rôle of supersyllabograms in what will prove to be a much fuller decipherment of Linear B tablets.  In addition, these researchers have made a significant contribution to my own research: John Bennet, Chris Tselentis 9, Carlos Varias Garcías 10   and above all, Marie Louise B. Nosch 11.  Without their splendid contributions, I would never have come to extrapolate their findings to the General Theory of Supersyllabograms.

The table of all 34 supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B. Image may be copyrighted.

The table of all 34 supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B. Image may be copyrighted.

On this final note, I wish you all only the best and bid you au revoir.

References & Notes:

  1. Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma. London: Random House, © 2012, 2014. 768 pp. ISBN- 10: 1784700088 & ISBN-13: 9781784700089
  2. Palaima, Thomas G. A Linear B Tablet from Heidelburg (PDF). France: Université de Liège.
  3. Tselentis, Chris. Sample of Texts (#4), in Linear B Lexicon. A Linear-B-Lexicon. PDF
  4. j<O> = “periqoro”, the archaic Mycenaean version of the Attic word, peri/boloj, which in its concrete sense means, “a circuit” “an enclosure”, from periba/llw, “to encompass”, “to surround”. In most Indo-European languages, the more archaic words are, the more concrete they are. So it is entirely plausible to translate “periqoro” as “a livestock pen” in general or “a sheep pen”, “pig pen” or “cattle pen” in the specific context in which the supersyllabogram appears surcharged on the appropriate ideogram, say, for instance, “sheep”, “ram” or “ewe”, which happen be by far the most common ideograms for livestock in Linear B, surpassing all others by a ratio of no less than 10 to 1. For the lexicon reference to the Attic form, see 546 & 547  in, Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, © 1986. 804 pp. (no ISBN)
  5. Chadwick, John. The Decipherment of Linear B. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Second Edition. © 1967, 1970. x, 164 pp. (I)SBN: 521-09596-4
  6. Linear B and Related Scripts. London: British Museum Press. © 1987. 64 pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-7141-8068-7 (hc) & ISBN: 0-7141-8068-8 (pbk)
  7. The Mycenaean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. © 1976. xv, 201 pp. ISBN 0521-29037-6 (pbk.) pg. 128
  8. ‘The Adjuncts’, pp. 130-152 in Chapter 17, “MycenaeanWriting” in, Duhoux, Yves and Morpurgo Davies, Anna, eds. A Companion to Linear B: Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World. Volume 3. Louvaine-la-Neuve, France: Peeters, © 2014. 292 pp. ISBN 978-2-7584-0192-6 (France)
  9. 9. Tselentis, Chris. Linear B Lexicon. A Linear-B-Lexicon (PDF, highly recommended)
  10. Garcías, Carlos Varias. See Bibliography below for multiple entries.
  11. Nosch, Marie Louise B. 9 above for referral. I have cited Ms. Nosch 15 times in the bibliography.

Bibliography: NOTES

The following abbreviations are always used for the sources they represent:

AJA  American Journal of Archaeology

ANCL LAntiquité classique

ASSC Actes del XV Simposi de la Secció Catalana de la S.E.E.C.

BCH Bulletin de correspondance hellénique

CAMB Proceedings of the Cambridge Colloquium on Mycenaean Studies. Palmer, R.L. & Chadwick, John, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, © 1966. First paperback edition, © 2011.  vii, 309 pp.  ISBN 978-1-107-40246-1 (pbk.)

CMLB Duhoux, Yves and Morpurgo Davies, Anna, eds. A Companion to Linear B: Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World. Vol. I. Bibliothèque des Cahiers de l’Institut de Linguistique de Louvain 120). Louvaine-la-Neuve, France: Peeters, © 2014. 292 pp. ISBN 978-2-7584-0192-6 (France)

CRAN Creta Antica

CRR Colloquium Romanum: atti del XII colloquio internazionale di micenologia, Roma, 20 – 25 febbraio 2006

ECR Economic History Review

JHS Journal of Hellenic Studies

KADM Kadmos: Zeitschrift für Vor- und Frühgriechische Epigraphik

KOSM Kosmos: Proceedings of the 13th. International Aegean Conference/13e Rencontre égéenne          internationale, University of Copenhagen, Danish National Research Foundation’s Centre                        for Textile Research, 21-26 April 2010. Leuven-Liège: Peeters. ix, 807+ pp. © 2012

KTMA KTEMA, civilisations de l’orient, de la Grèce et de Rome antique. Strasbourg: Université Marc

Bloch de Strasbourg, Centre de recherches sur le proche orient et la Grèce antiques

MIN Minos: Revista de Filología Egea. ISSN: 0544-3733

MINR  Minerva: Revista de Filología Clasíca

MYCAa Risch, E. & Mühlestein, H., eds. Colloquium Mycenaeum. Actes du sixième colloque international sur les textes mycéniens et égéens tenu à Chaumont sur Neuchâtel du 7-13 septembre 1975,  Neuchâtel. Genève : Librairie Droz. © 1979

MYCAb Olivier J.-P., éd. Mykenaïka: Actes du IXe Colloque international sur les textes mycéniens       et égéens, organisé par le Centre de l’Antiquité Grecque et Romaine de la Fondation Hellénique de l’École française d’Athènes (Athènes, 2-6 octobre 1990). Paris: BCH, Suppl. 25. © 1992 MYCAc Carlier, P., de Lamberterie, C., et al. Études Mycéniennes 2010. Actes du XIIIè colloque international sur les textes égéens, Sèvres, Paris, Nanterre, 20–23 septembre 2010.

Pisa et Roma, © 2012

OPUS Opuscula, Annual of the Swedish Institute at Athens and Rome

PALM Palmer, L. R. The Interpretation of Mycenaean Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press,

© 1963. Special Edition for Sandpiper Books Ltd., © 1998. xiii, 488 pp. ISBN 0-19-813144-5

PASR Pasiphae: Rivista di filologia e antichità egee

REVC Revista del Departament de Ciències de l Antiguitat de l’Edat Mitjana  SMEA Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici

Bibliographic Conventions for References & Notes and the Bibliography:

  • Monographs follow this convention: Author(s) or Editor(s) -surname, first name-. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. no. of pages. © year of publication. ISBN(s) (if any). Books prior to 1965 do not have ISBNs.
  • Serials and Journals follow this convention: Author(s) -surname, first name-. “Article Title”, pp. aa-bb (if any) in Journal Title. Vol. no., (issue no., if any), month (if any), year. ISSN (Standard International Serial Number) (if any).
  • Conventions and Colloquiums follow this convention, as far as possible, depending on the amount of bibliographical data provided: Author(s) or Editor(s) -surname, first name-. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. no. of pages. © year of publication. ISBN(s) (if any). Books prior to 1965 do not have ISBNs.
  • If the same author(s) or editor(s) with exact same title is/are cited a second time, or more than twice in a row, each entry subsequent to the first one is tagged, Cit. = opero citato, Latin for “in the work already cited”.
  • If the same author(s) or editor(s) is/are cited under a title different from the first one or in a previous identical title or reference not immediately preceding the current one , each entry subsequent to the first one is tagged, Ibid. = Latin adverb ibidem, approximately equivalent to the English “by the same author(s) or editor(s) ”.
  • Monographs and articles in PDF are tagged as such, while those for which I have been unable to find sufficient bibliographical dating are tagged PDF (bibliographic information lacking).
  • If there are more than two (2) or (3) Author(s) or Editor(s) for any given entry, the first two are named, followed by the tag, et al. = et alii, Latin for “and others”.
  • If there is any error in any entry, orthographic or other, it is followed by the tag (sic), Latin for “thus”.


  1. Alberti, M.E. “The Minoan Textile Industry and the Territory from Neopalatial to Mycenaean Times: Some First Thoughts”, pp. 243-263 in CRAN, 8, 2007
  2. anon. Comparison of Linear-B and Cypriotic Unicode Codepoints. Unicode Documents. 7 pp. PDF edu
  3. Aravantinos, V.L., Godart Louis & Sacconi, A. Fouilles de la Cadmee I. Les tablettes en linéaire B de la Odos Pelopidou. Édition et commentaire. Pisa and Rome: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali, © 2005. xii, 339 pp. ISBN 88-8147-421-2.(hc.) & ISBN 88-8147-434-4 (pbk.)
  4. Barber E. J. W. Prehistoric Textiles. The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton: Princeton University Press © 1991. 504 pp. ISBN-10: 069100224X & 13: 978-0691002248
  5. Bernabé, A. & Luján, Eugenio R. “Mycenaean technology” 201-233 in CMLB. (n.d.) undated. PDF
  1. Bennett E. L. Jr. “A Selection of Pylos Tablets Texts”, pp. 103-127, in Olivier Jean.-Paul, ed. MYCAb. Paris: BCH (Suppl. 25), 1992
  2. Ibid. “The Structure of the Linear B Administration at Knossos”, pp. 231-249 in AJA. Vol. 94, no. 2, April 1990
  3. Bennet, John. “ ‘Collectors’ or ‘Owners’, An Examination of their Possible Functions Within the Palatial Economy of LM III Crete”, pp. 65-101 in Oliver, Jean-Pierre, ed. BCH (Supplément XXV).

ISSN 0304-2456 

  1. Ibid. “Knossos in Context: Comparative Perspectives on the Linear B Administration of LM II-III Crete”, pp. 193-211 in AJA. Vol. 89, no. 2, April 1985
  2. “Space Through Time: Diachronic Perspectives on the Spatial Organization of the Pylian State”, pp. 587-602. Plates LXIX-LXXI. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  3. Bennett, E.L. “The Landholders of Pylos”, 103-133 in AJA. Vol. 60, 1956
  4. The Olive Oil Tablets of Pylos. Texts of Inscriptions Found”, in MIN. Supp. 2, 1955
  5. Ibid. The Pylos Tablets: A Preliminary Transcription. Princeton: Princeton University Pressxii, 117 pp. © 1951 
  1. Ibid. The Pylos Tablets: Texts of the Inscriptions Found, 1939-1954. London: Institute of Classical Studies. xxxiii, 252 pp. © 1955
  2. Bennett, E.L. & Olivier, Jean-Paul. “The Pylos Tablets Transcribed”, in Incunabula Graeca. Vol L1. Roma: Edizioni Dell’Ateneo. Moulos. Vol. 63, 1973
  1. Bennett E. L. Jr., Driessen J. M., et al. “436 raccords et quasi-raccords de fragments inédits”, pp. 199-242 dans Vol 24, 1989
  2. Bernabé, A. & Luján. Eugenio R. “Mycenaean Technology”, pp. 201-233 in CLMB
  3. Bunimovitz, S. “Minoan-Mycenaean Olive Oil Production and Trade: A Review of the Current Research”, pp. 11-15 in Eitam, D., ed. Olive Oil in Antiquity: Israel and Neighboring Countries from Neolith (sic) to Early Arab Period. Haifa: University of Haifa. © 1987
  1. Burke, B. 2010. From Minos to Midas: Ancient Cloth Production in the Aegean and in Anatolia. (Ancient Textiles Series, 7). Oxford: Oxbow Books. © 2010. 240 pp. ISBN: 9781842174067
  2. Carington-Smith, J. Weaving, Spinning and Textile Production in Greece: The Neolithic to Bronze Age. Australia: University of Tasmania. (Ph.D. Dissertation) © 1975
  3. Chadwick John. “Pylos Tablet Un 1322, pp. 19-26 in Bennett E. L. Jr., ed. Mycenaean Studies. Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium for Mycenaean Studies Held at ‘Wingspread’, 4 -8 September 1961. Madison, Wisc. © 1964  
  1. Chadwick, John, Killen, John T. & Olivier, Jean Paul. The Knossos Tablets. 4th ed. London: Cambridge University Press. © 1971. 486 pp. ISBN-10: 0521080851 & 13: 978-0521080859
  2. Chaniotaki, Athina P. The Story Behind the Symbols. Chania: Avra Imperial. [12. pp.] PDF
  3. Davies, Lyn. A is for Ox: A short history of the alphabet. London: The Folio Society. 127 pp. © 2006. no ISBN
  1. Del Freo, Maurizio & Rougemont, Françoise.Observations sur la série Of de Thèbes”, 263280. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  2. Del Freo, Maurizio, Nosch Marie-Louise & Rougemont, Françoise. “17. The Terminology of Textiles in the Linear B Tablets, including Some Considerations on Linear A Logograms and Abbreviations”, pp. 338-373 in Michel, C., Nosch Marie-Louise, eds. Textile Terminologies in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean from the Third to the First Millennia BC. (Ancient Textile Series, Vol. 8). Oxford: Oxbow Books. © xix, 444 pp. ISBN: 978-1-84217-975-8
  3. Demsky, Aaron. Jacob’s Herds in Light of Ancient Near Eastern Sources. n.d. (undated). PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  4. Driessen, Jan. “The Arsenal of Knossos (Crete) and Mycenaean Chariot Forces” pp. 481-498 in Acta Archaeologica Anensia. Monographiae 8, 1995, in Lodewijckx, Marc, ed. Archaeological and Historical Aspects of West-European Societies. Album Amicorum André van Doorselaer. Leuven: Leuven University Press, © 1996
  1. Driessen, Jan, et al. “107 raccords et quasi-raccords dans CoMIK 1 et II”, in BCH, 112, 1988
  2. Drouin, Patrick. Acquisition automatique des termes : l’utilisation des pivots lexicaux spécialisés. Montréal : Université de Montréal, Département de linguistique et de traduction, Faculté des arts et des sciences. Thèse présentée à la Faculté des études supérieures en vue de l’obtention du grade de Philosophiæ Doctor (Ph.D.) en linguistique. 289 pp. © 2002. PDF edu
  3. Duhoux, Y. Aspects du vocabulaire économique mycénien (cadastre – artisanat – fiscalité). Amsterdam: A. M. Hakkert © 1976. 202 pp. ISBN-10: 9025607128 & 13: 978-9025607128
  1. “Idéogrammes textiles du Linéaire B *146, *160, *165, et *166”, pp. 116-132 in MIN, Vol. 15, 1974
  2. Ibid. “Mycenaean anthology”, pp. 243-393 in CMLB. Vol. I, no pagination.
  3. Feinman, G.M. “Crafts, Specialists, and Markets in Mycenaean Greece. Re-envisioning Ancient Economies: Beyond Typological Constructs.” pp. 453-459 in AJA, 117, no. 3, 2013
  4. Fine, John V.A. “The Early Aegean World”, pp. 1-23 in, Ibid. The Ancient Greeks: a Critical History. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ix, 720 pp. © 1983. ISBN 0-674-03314-0 (pbk.)
  5. Finley, M.I. “The Mycenaean Tablets and Economic History”, pp. 128-141 in ECR. Vol. 10, 1957
  6. Firth, Richard J. “Re-considering Alum on the Linear B Tablets”, in Gillis, C. & Nosch, Marie-Louise. Ancient Textiles: Production, Craft and Society: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ancient Textiles, held at Lund, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark, on March 19-23, 2003. Oxford: Oxbow Books. © 2007. 288 pp. ISBN-10: 1842172026 & 13: 978-1842172025
  1. Firth, Richard J. & Nosch Marie-Louise. “Scribe 103 and the Mycenaean Textile Industry at Knossos: The Lc(1) and Od(1)-Sets”, in Vol. 37-38, 2002-2003
  2. Firth, Richard J. & Melena, José L. “Joins and Quasi-joins of Fragments of Linear B Tablets from Knossos”, pp. 113-110.  PDF
  1. Foster, E.D. “The Flax Impost at Pylos and Mycenaean Landholding”, pp. 549-560 in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. Vol. 20, no. 6, 2011. ISSN 0939-6314 & e-ISSN 1617-6278
  2. Foxhall, L. “Cargoes of the Heart’s Desire: The Character of Trade in the Archaic Mediterranean World”, pp. 295-309 in Fisher, N. & Van Wees, H. eds. Archaic Greece, New Approaches and New Evidence. Duckworth: The Classical Press of Wales. © 1998, reprint © 2008. 464 pp. ISBN 0715628097 & 978-0715628096
  3. García, Carlos Varias. “Festes i banquets a la Grièga antiga: orígens d’una tradició ininterrompuda”, pp. 517-532 in, Danés, J. et al. Estudis Clàssics: Imposició, Apologiao o Sedducció? Llieda, 21-23 octubre de 2005. © 2005 ISBN 678-84-690-9931-5
  4. Ibid. “Industria y comercio en la sociedad Micénica”, pp. 11-37 in Número 16, 2002-2003
  5. Ibid. La Metodología actual en el Estudio de los Textos micénicos: un Ejemplo práctico. pp. 353365. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  6. Ibid. “Observaciones sobre algunos textos gastronómicos de Micenas”, pp. 831-842 in, Aldama, Javier Alonso, al., eds.  Stij a0mmoudiej tou Omhrou. Homenaje a la Professora Olga Omatos. Spain: Universidad del País Vasco. © n.d. (undated)
  7. Ibid. “Un texto micénico singular sobre la industria textil de Cnoso: la tabilla Kn LN 1568”, pp. 442-446 in Zaragoza, Joana; Senmartí, Antoni González, edd.  Homatge a Josep Alsina. Actes del Xè Simposi de la Secció Catalana de la SEEC. Tarragona, 28 a 30 de novembre 1990
  1. Godart Louis, Killen John T., et al. “43 raccords et quasi-raccords de fragments”, pp. 377-389, dans le volume I du Corpus of Mycenaean Inscriptions from Knossos. Vol. 110, 1986
  2. Ibid. “501 raccords et quasi-raccords de fragments dans les tablettes de Cnossos post KT-V”, pp. 373-410. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  3. Greco, Allesandro. “Omologazione, integrazione, sostituzione: le procedure di aggiornamento deidocumenti inerenti alle greggi del palazzo di Cnoso (Standardization, Integration, Replacement: Procedure for Updating the Documents Pertaining to Knossos Flocks)”, pp. 217-246 in (Centro di Archeologia Cretese, Università di Catania). Vol. 2., 2002
  4. Ibid. Scribi et Pastori, Amministrazione et gestione nell’archivio di Cnosso. Athens: SAIA (Italian Archaeological School of Athens), Series: Tripodes (Archeologia Antropologica Storia). © 2011. iii, 732pp. ISBN: 978-960-98397-7-8
  1. Gregersen, Marie Louise Bech. “Craftsmen in the Linear B Archives”, pp. 43-55 in Gillis, Carole, Risberg, Christian & Sjöberg, Birgitta, eds. Trade and Production in Premonetary Greece. Proceedings of the 4th. and 5th. International Workshops, Athens, 1994 and 1995. Paul Åströms förlag, © 1997
  1. Gulizio, Joann. Mycenaean Religion at Knossos. Austin: University of Texas at Austin. (Phd. Thesis), August, 2011.
  2. Hammond, N.G.L. Chapter 2, “The Greek Mainland and Mycenaean Civilization”, pp. 36-71 in A History of Greece to 322 B.C. Oxford: Clarendon Press. xxi, 691 pp. Third Edition, © 1986. ISBN 0-19-873093-0 (pbk.)
  3. Hiller S. “A-pi-qo-ro amphipoloi”, pp. 239-255 in Killen J. T., Melena, José. L. & Olivier J.-P., eds. Studies in Mycenaean and Classical Greek presented to John Chadwick, Salamanca. in MIN. Vol. 2022, 1987
  1. Hutton, William F. The Meaning of QE-TE-O in Linear B. pp. 105-131. PZN INT CANADA (University of Calgary, Department of Classics). nd. (undated). PDF
  2. James, S.A. “The Thebes tablets and the Fq series: a contextual analysis”, pp. 397–417  in Vol. 37–38, 2006
  1. Jones, D.M. “Land tenure at Pakijane : some doubts and questions”. pp. 245-249 in CAMB
  2. Kelly, Adrian. Homer and History: Iliad 381-4. (with frequent references to Mycenaean Linear B) pp. 321-333. © 2006 PDF
  3. Killen John T. “The Knossos Ld(1) Tablets”, in MYCAa
  4. Ibid. “The Knossos Nc Tablets”, pp. 33-38 in CAMB
  5. Ibid. “Last year’s debts on the Pylos Ma tablets”, pp. 173-188 in Vol. 25, 1984
  6. Ibid. “Linear B a-ko-ra-ja/-jo”, 117-125 in Morpurgo Davies A. & Meid W., eds. Studies in Greek, Italic and Indo-European Linguistics offered to Leonard R. Palmer on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, 16. © 1976
  7. Ibid. “The Linear B Tablets and Mycenaean Economy”, in Morpurgo, Davies A. & Duhoux Y., eds. Linear B: A 1984 Survey: Proceedings of the Mycenaean Colloquium of the VIIIth Congress of the International Federation of the Societies of Classical Studies (Dublin, , 27 August -1st September 1984). Louvain-La-Neuve: Peeters. © 1985. 310 pp. ISBN 2870772890 & 9782870772898
  1. Ibid. “Mycenaean economy”, pp. 159-200 in CMLB. Vol. I.
  2. Ibid. “Some thoughts on ta-ra-si-ja”, pp. 161-180 in Voutsaki S. & Killen John T., eds. Economy and Politics in the Mycenaean Palace States. Proceedings of a Conference held on 1-3 July 1999 in the Faculty of Classics, Cambridge. Cambridge: (TCPhS Suppl. 27). © 2001
  3. Ibid. & Olivier, Jean-Paul. “The Knossos Tablets. A Transliteration”, pp. 292-294 in ANCL. Vol. 34, no 1, 1965
  1. Ibid. “Studies in Mycenaean and Classical Greek presented to John Chadwick”, 319-323 in MIN. Vol. 20-22, 1987
  2. Ibid. “388 raccords de fragments dans les tablettes de Cnossos”, pp. 47-92 in CAMB
  3. Lane, Michael Franklin. From DA-MO to DHMOS: Survival of a Mycenaean Land Allocation Tradition in the Classical Period?, pp. 110-116 n.d. (undated). PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  4. Ibid. “Landholding at PA-KA-JA-NA: Toward Spatial Modeling of Mycenaean Agricultural Estates”, pp. 61-115 in PASR. Vol 6. 2012. ISSN 1974-0565; ISSN elettronico 2037-738
  5. Linear B pe-re-ke-u, pe-re-ke and  pe-re-ko: Contextual Analysis and Etymological Notes. pp. 76-99. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  6. Lejeune, M. “Chars et Roues à Cnossos : Structure d’un inventaire”, pp. 287-330 in Ibid. Mémoires de philologie mycénienne, lll. Rome, 1972, in pp. 9-61. Vol. 9, 1968
  7. Ibid. “Le récapitulatif du cadastre Ep de Pylos”, pp. 260-264 in CAMB
  8. Ibid. “Sur quelques termes du vocabulaire économique mycénien”, pp. 77–109 in Bennett, E.L., ed. Mycenaean studies. Proceedings of the third international colloquium for Mycenaean studies held at “Wingspread”, 4–8 September 1961. Madison, Wisconsin.  © 1964
  1. Lévêque, Pierre; Kochan, Miriam, trans. “2 The Formation of an Achaean World (1580-1200 BCE)”, 36-73 in Book One: Prehellenes and Hellenes: Encounters and Syntheses up to the End of the Second Millennium, in Ibid. The Greek Adventure (Studies in World History).  Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, © 1964. xx, 595 pp. (no ISBN)
  2. Littauer, M.A. “The Military Use of the Chariot in the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age”, pg. 153 in Vol. 76, 1972
  3. Ibid. & Crouwel, J.H. “Chariots in Late Bronze Age Greece”, pg. 190 in Vol. 57. 1983
  4. Luján, Eugenio R. “El léxico micénico de las telas”, 335-369 in MIN. Vol. 31-32, 1996-1997
  5. Ibid. “Payment and Trade Terminology on Linear B Tablets”, pp. 25-32 in García-Bellodo; Callegarin, Laurent; Díaz and Alicia Jiménez. “Barter, Money and Coinage in the Ancient Mediterranean (10th. – 1st. Centuries BC”, in Actas del IV encuentro peninsular de numismática antigua (EPNA). Madrid: Gobierno de España, CSIC. © 2011 ISBN: 978-84-00-09326-6; e-ISBN: 978-84-00-09327-3
  1. Ibid. & Bernabé, Alberto. “Ivory and Horn Production in Mycenaean Texts” pp. 627-638 in (bibliographic information lacking)
  2. Manning, Stuart W. “The Military Function in Late Minoan l Crete: A Note”, pp. 284-288 in World Archaeology. Vol 18, no. 2, 1986 ISSN 0043-8243 & e-ISSN 1470-1375
  3. Martinotti, Enriqueta et Tina. Lineaire B : le préjugé comptable et pictographique d‘un syllabaire logographique, phonologique et polysémantique. (sans pagination, unpaginated). Hal-00311652, version 3 – 10 sep 2008. PDF et_pictographique_d_un_systeme_logographique.phonologique_et_polysemique.pdf

  1. Mavridis, Dimitrios G. Disclosed Intellectual Capital Aspects in Creto-Mycenean Palatial Linear B Clay Tablets.” pp. 611-621, in International Conference on Applied Economics – ICOAE. © 2008. PDF

  1. Melena, José L. Coriander on the Knossos Tablets”, pp. 133-163 in Madrid 3 Facultad de Filología A-35 Ciudad Universitaria. (n.d.) (bibliographic information lacking)
  2. Ibid. “El Testimonio del Micenico a proposito de los nombres de las distintas fuerzas en Homero”, pp. 421-436 in Vol. 44, núm. 2, 1976
  1. Ibid. 133 Joins and Quasi-Joins of Fragments in the Linear B Tablets from Pylos”, pp. 271-289 in Vol. 27-28, 1992-1993 (1994)
  2. Op. Cit. 167 Joins of Fragments in the Linear B Tablets from Pylos”, pp. 71-82
  3. Ibid.“On the Ideogrammatic Syllabogram ZE”, pp. 389-457. PDF
  4. Ibid. 19 raccords et quasi-raccords de fragments dans les tablettes de Cnossos”, pp. 417-422 in MIN. Vols. 31-32, 1996-1997 (1999)
  5. Ibid. 63 Joins and Quasi-joins of Fragments in the Linear B Fragments from Pylos”, pp. 371-384. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  6. Ibid. On the Knossos Mc Tablets”, pp. 29-54 in Vol. 13, 1972
  7. Ibid. On the Linear B Ideogrammatic Syllabogram ZE”, in Killen J. T., Melena L., Olivier J.-P, eds. Studies in Mycenaean and Classical Greek presented to John Chadwick, Salamanca, pp. 389-457 in MIN. Vol. 20-22, 1987
  8. Montecchi, Barbara. “An Updating Note on Minoan Fractions, Measures and Weights”, pp. 9-26 in AIIN, Vol. 59, 2013.  PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  9. Moulos, Megan. The Textile and Perfumed Oil of Mycenaean Pylos: Production, Scope, and Trade of Two Value-Added Goods. MA thesis, © 2015. 72 pp. 8 Appendices. Bibliography PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  1. Nikoloudis, S. Thoughts on a possible link between the PY Ea series and a Mycenaean tanning operation”, pp. 285–330 in MICAc
  2. Nosch, Marie Louise B. “Acquisition and Distribution: ta-ra-si-ja in the Mycenaean Textile Industry”, pp. 43-61 in, Gillis, et al. Trade and Production in Premonetary Greece: Acquisition and Distribution of Raw Materials and Finished Goods. Proceedings of the 6th. International Workshop, Athens, 1996. Sweden: Paul Äströms fülag, © 2000
  3. Ibid. “Administrative Practices in Mycenaean Palace Administration and Economy”, pp. 595-604 in PASR. Vol. 2, 2008. ISSN 1974-0565;  ISSN elettronico 2037-738x
  4. Ibid. “L’administration des textiles en Crète centrale, hors les séries Lc/Le/Ln”, pp. 404-406 in BCH : 2. Études chroniques et rapports ( extrait ). Vol. 122, 1998
  5. Ibid. “Les allocations de laine des tablettes en Linéaire B de Thèbes”, pp. 77-92 dans = in KADM.Band 48, © 2009
  1. Ibid. Center and Periphery in the Linear B Archives. pp. 64-70 PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  2. Ibid. “Cloth in the Cult”, pp. 471-477 in, Laffineur, Robert & Hägg, Robin, eds. Potnia: Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 8th. International Conference/ 8Rencontre égéenne internationale. Göteborg, 12-15 April 2000. France: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique + Austin, Texas: University of Austin; Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory, © 2001
  3. Ibid. “Entre collecteurs et travailleurs : ‘les responsables’ dans l’industrie textile de Cnossos”, pp. 133-143 dans KTMA. No. 26
  4. Ibid. “More Thoughts on the Mycenaean ta-ra-si-ja System”, pp. 161-182 in Perna, M., ed. Fiscality in Mycenaean and Near Eastern Archives, Proceedings of the Conference held at Naples, 21-23 October 2004, Napoli. © 2006
  1. Ibid. “The Mycenaean Palace-Organised Textile Industry”, pp. 135-154 in Perna, Massimo & Pomponio, Francesco, eds. The Management of Agricultural Land and the Production of Textiles in the Mycenaean and Near Eastern Economies. (Studi egei e vicinorientali. 4) Paris: De Brocard. © 2008
  2. Ibid. “The Mycenaean Textile Industry of the Kadmeia”, pp. 191-202 in Aravantinos V. L., ed. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Boeotian Studies, Livadia, 9-12 September 2000, Athens. © 2008
  1. Ibid. “Red Coloured Textiles in the Linear B Inscriptions”, pp. 32-39 in Cleland, Liza; Stears, Karen; Davies, Glenys, eds., in Section One: The Creation of Colour, in Colour in the Ancient Mediterranean World, Oxford: BAR International Series 1267. © 2004
  1. Ibid. “The Textile Industry at Thebes in the Light of the Textile Industries at Pylos and Knossos”, pp. 180-191 in Radová I., Václavková-Petrovicová K., eds. Graeco-Latina Brunensia, Festschrift in honour of A. Bartoněk. Brno: Sborník Prací Filozofické Fakulty Brnenské Univerzity (Studia minora facultatis philosophicae Universitatis Brunensis, N. 6-7, 2001-2002)
  2. Ibid. The Textile Logograms in the Linear B Tablets: Les idéogrammes archéologiques des textiles. The history and historiography of the textile logogram in Linear B, pp. 305-346. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  3. Olivier, Jean-Paul. “El comercio micénico desde la documentación epigráfica”, pp. 275-292 in Vol. 31-32. 1996-1997 (1999)
  4. Ibid. “Les scribes de Cnossos et les syllabogrammes non translittérées”, pp 39-44, in CAMB
  5. Olivier, Jean-Paul, Perna, Massimo, et al. “107 raccords et quasi-raccords de fragments dan CoMIK I et II” pp. 59-82 dans=in Persée : Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Vol 112, livraison 1, 1988
  1. Orieux, Claude & Pantel, Pauline Schmitt; Lloyd, Janet, trans. “1 / The Greek World’s Earliest Times. The Bronze Age… passim… The Mycenaean World”, pp. 5-22 in, Ibid. A History of Ancient Greece. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers. xv, 432 pp. © 1999. ISBN 0-631-20309-5
  1. Palaima, Thomas G. “ ‘Kn02 – Tn 316’ ”, pp. 437–461 in Deger-Jalkotzy, S., Hiller, S. & Panagl, O., eds. Floreant Studia Mycenaea. Akten des 10. Internationalen Mykenologischen Colloquiums in Salzburg vom 1.–5. Mai 1995. © 1999
  2. Ibid. Maritime Matters in the Linear B Tablets. pp. 273-310. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  3. Palmer, L. R. “Cattle Inventories” in PALM, pp. 164-185
  4. Ibid. “The Ideograms”, in PALM, pp. 8-17
  5. Cit. “Military Equipment”, pp. 314-337
  6. “A Mycenaean calendar of offerings (PY Kn 02)”, in Eranos. Vol. 53, 1955. pp. 1–13
  7. Ibid. “The Pylos Ma Series” + “The Pylos Na Series”, in PALM, pp. 300-313
  8. Cit. “Ritual Offerings”, pp. 235-268
  9. Cit. “Wool and Textiles”, pp. 290-299
  10. Ibid. “War and Society in a Mycenaean Kingdom”, pp. 35-64 in = dans Chastagnol, , Nicolet,  C. et van Effenterre, H., éds.  Armées et fiscalité dans le monde antique, Actes du Colloque National n° 936 du CNRS, Paris, 14-16 Octobre 1976. Paris. © 1977
  11. Petrakis, Vassilis P. “ ‘Minoan’ to ‘Mycenaean ’: Thoughts on the Emergence of the Knossian Textile Industry” 77-86 (XXVI-XXVII in Nosch, Marie-Louise & Laffineur, Robert, eds., in KOSM.
  12. Raymoure, Kim. Linear B Herdsman, Herd: -qo-ta. 8 pp. Bibliography. PDF (bibliographic information lacking)
  13. Rougemont, Françoise. The administration of Mycenaean sheep rearing (flocks, shepherds, “collectors”). PDF (bibliographic information lacking). Abstract: The Mycenaean Greek archives found both at Knossos in Crete and Pylos in Messenia give us detailed information about flocks of sheep, which are reared for their wool. The aim of this paper will be to provide the (non-specialist) reader with an overview of the extant documentation, and to study some problems and characteristics linked with the administration of sheep rearing (organization of the flocks, relationships between palatial administration, shepherds and “collectors”). Differences between these two archives are underlined (e.g. tablet format used by the scribes, presence/absence of “deficit” entries, presence/absence of flocks intended for reproduction, presence/absence of targets for wool production) and some possible explanations are suggested.
  1. Ibid. “The Administration of Mycenaean Sheep Rearing (Flocks, Shepherds, ‘Collectors’)”, pp. 2434 in Frizell, B., ed. Man and Animal in Antiquity. Proceedings of the Conference held in Rome, September 11-15, 2002. Roma: The Swedish Institute in Rome, Projects and Seminars 1. © 2004
  1. Ibid. “Les enregistrements d’huile dans la série Fh de Cnossos. Essai d’interprétation et de comparaison avec les données du bureau de l’huile à mari”, pp. 669-689 dans Vol. 2, 2008
  2. Ibid. “Flax and Linen Textiles in the Mycenaean Palatial Economy”, 46-49PDF (bibliographic information lacking). Flax is one of the oldest domesticated species in the Near Eastern regions: evidence from the end of the 8th  millennium BC has been found both for seeds and for linen textiles – in Palestine (Ramad) and near the Dead Sea, in the cave of Nahal Hemar, respectively. In the Mycenaean world, flax was cultivated in Messenia and probably also on Crete (though the mentions are scarce) during the Late Bronze Age. We know from the Pylos and Knossos tablets that its fibers were collected and used to make linen textiles. It is designated either by the word ri-no, /linon/, or by the syllabogram SA used as an ideogram (and probably an acrophonic abbreviation of a pre-Hellenic word for linen, unfortunately unknown). It is argued that the use of SA and RI corresponds to a difference in the stage of processing of the flax fibers: SA standing for flax fibers at an early stage (after uprooting or after retting), whereas RI would stand for the same fibers at a later stage (ready for spinning or even for weaving). The evidence for linen textiles and specialized workers is also reviewed.
  1. Ibid. “The Textile Production and the Mycenaean Sanctuaries”, pp. 287-303 in Gillis C. & Sjöberg, B, eds. Crossing Borders, Proceedings of the 7th., 8th. and 9th. International Workshops. Athens 19971999. Sävedalen: SIMA-PB 173. ©  2008
  1. Ruigh, C.J. “Chars et roues dans les tablettes mycéniennes: la méthode de la mycénologie”, in Mededeelingen et Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschppen, Afd. Letterkunde. Issue 5, Part 39, 1976. Amsterdam: Elsevier: North Holland Publishing Co. 32 pp. © 1976
  1. Ibid.  “Interpretation hypothetique de la tablette Va 15 de Pylos”, pp. 47–62, in ŽivaAnt 31. 1981
  2. Ibid.  “Po-ku-ta et po-ku-te-ro, dérivés de *póku « petit bétail » ”, pp. 543-582 in MYCAb, BCH
  3. Sacconi, A. “Gli ideogrammi per la pelle e per il cuoio nei testi micenei”, pp. 97–134, in SMEA. Vol. 3, 1967
  1. Sacconi, A. “La tavoletta di Pilo Tn 316: una registrazione di carattere eccezionale?”, pp. 551–555 in MIN.Vol.20–22 in Killen, JohnT., Melena, José L. & Olivier, Jean Pierre, eds. Studies in Mycenaean and Classical Greek presented to John Chadwick. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca. 628 pp. © 1987
  1. “La tavoletta di Pilo Tn 316: una registrazione di carattere eccezionale?”, pp. 551–555 in MIN. Vol. 20–22 in Killen, JohnT., Melena, José L. & Olivier, Jean Pierre, eds. Studies in Mycenaean and Classical Greek presented to John Chadwick. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca. 628 pp. © 1987
  2. Steele, Philippa M. “Greek Writing Systems”, pp. 140-146 in Giannakis, Georgios K., general ed. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics. Vol 2. (G-O) Leiden & Boston: Brill. © 2014. Also available in PDF from
  1. Taylour, William & Chadwick, John. The Mycenaeans and the Decipherment of Linear B. London: The Folio Society, © 2004. xxiii, 378 pp.
  2. Uchitel, Alexander. “Charioteers of Knossos”, pp. 23-34 in Vol. 23-24, 1988
  3. Vallance Janke, Richard. “An Archaeologist’s translation of Pylos Tablet TA 641-1952 (Ventris), with an introduction to supersyllabograms in the vessels & pottery Sector in Mycenaean Linear B”, TBP in Archaeology and Science = Arheoologija I Prirodne Nauke (Belgrade) ISSN 1452-7448, February 2016. approx. 30 pp. ABSTRACT: In partnership with The Association of Historical Studies, Koryvantes (Athens), our organization, Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae (WordPress), conducts ongoing research into Mycenaean archaeology and military affairs and the Mycenaean Greek dialect. This study centres on a  fresh new decipherment of Pylos tablet TA 641-1952 (Ventris) by Mrs. Rita Roberts from Crete, who brings to bear the unique perspectives of an archaeologist on her translation, in all probability the most accurate realized to date. We then introduce the newly minted term in Mycenaean Linear B, the supersyllabogram, being the first syllabogram or first syllable of any word or entire phrase in Linear B. Supersyllabograms have been erroneously referred to as “adjuncts” in previous linguistic research into Mycenaean Linear B. This article demonstrates that their functionality significantly exceeds such limitations, and that the supersyllabogram must be fully accounted for as a unique and discrete phenomenon without which any approach to the interpretation of the Linear B syllabary is at best incomplete, and at worse, severely handicapped. Keywords: Mycenaean Linear B, syllabograms, logograms, ideograms, supersyllabograms, adjuncts, Linear B tablets, Pylos, Pylos TA 641-1952 (Ventris), decipherment, translation, pottery, vessels, tripods, cauldrons, amphorae, kylixes, cups, goblets
  1. Ibid. “The Gezer Agricultural Calendar Almanac in Paleo-Hebrew (ca. 925 BCE) and its Translation into Mycenaean Linear B, Coupled with the Profound Implications of the Powerful Impact of Supersyllabograms aka Surcharged Adjuncts on Linear B” PDF


  1. Michael. The Ventris Papers. Institute of Classical Studies (Series: Collections and Projects: ICS Michael Ventris Archive).  London: University of London, School of Advanced Study. Duplicate copy at Austin: University of Texas. 36 pp. PDF
  1. Ventris, Michael & Chadwick, John. Documents in Mycenaean Greek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2nd. Edition). 2 Vols., 484 pp. ISBN-10: 0521085586 & ISBN-13: 978-0521085588. Volume II came out in 1973. It adds substantially to Volume I. Cambridge University published both volumes together as the Second Edition in 1973.
  2. Weilhartner, Jörg. “DAIS, the Aegean Feast. Some observations on the commodities in the Linear B tablets referring to sacrificial banquets”, pp. 411-426 in, Aegaeum 29, Annales d’archéologie égéenne de l’Université de Liège et UT-PASP in, Hitchcock, Louise; Laffineur, Robert and Crowley, Janice, eds. Melbourne, Australia: Centre for Classics and Archaeology, 25-29 March 2008. Proceedings of the 12th International Aegean Conference/ 12e Rencontre égéenne internationale. © 2008
  3. Ibid. “The Influence of Aegean Iconography on the Design of the Linear B Logograms for Animals, Plants and Agricultural Products”, in Touchais, Gilles, Laffineur, Robert et Rougemont, Françoise, eds. AEGAEUM 37. Annales liégeoises et PASPiennes d’archéologie égéenne. PHYSIS. L’environnement naturel et la relation homme-milieu dans le monde égéen protohistorique. LeuvenLiège, France : Peeters, © 2014. Paris, Institut National d’Histoire de l’Art (INHA) : Actes de la 14e Rencontre égéenne internationale, 11-14 décembre 2012
  4. Ibid. Mykenische Opfergaben nach Aussage der Linear B-Texte. Wien (Vienna): ÖAW + Austrian Academy of Sciences Press (Series: Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, Vol. 330). 262 pp. © 2005  ISBN-10: 3700134894 & ISBN-13: 978-3700134893. The Thebes tablets of the Of series record allocations of wool, aimed at different purposes, including the production and finishing of textiles. This paper studies the individuals involved in the textile manufacture, the production structures and the mechanisms underlying the distribution of wool. In particular, it is argued that, in addition to the female workgroups who were dependent on an authority (king, palace, sanctuaries, “collectors”), there were also independent production units, probably organized on a family scale and located in or near the city of Thebes (PN + do-de, allative case of do ‘house’). The bureaucratic formulae of the Of series are also analyzed in order to reconstruct a possible scenario for the distribution of wool as well as to identify the individuals responsible of the withdrawals from the palace storerooms.
  5. Ibid. “Religious offerings in the Linear B tablets: an attempt at their classification and some thoughts on their possible purpose”, 207-231 in REVC. Núm. extra, 2012. García, Carlos Varias, ed. Faventia, Supplementa 1: Actas del Simposio Internacional: 55 Años de Micenología (19522007). © 2007
  6. Ibid. “Textual evidence for Late Bronze Age ritual processions”, pp. 151-173 in OPUS. Vol. 6, 2013. 358 pp.



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